There are different definitions of alcoholism, but they all basically point out that each repeated drinking of alcohol, regardless of the quantity and frequency, which ruins person’s health and/or creates social problems and difficulties is consider to be alcoholism. Alcoholism is a social-medical disease, which is caused by permanent and excessive consumption of alcohol. Therefore, alcoholism is not a vice, but a disease!
Stages of treatment of alcoholism:
· Diagnostic – This is an assessment of the physical health of the patient (whilst recognizing blood analysis, ECG, specialist examinations). The goal is to discover the consequences of alcohol use and to regenerate organs that were damaged. At this stage is conducted psychodiagnostic – testing the level of desire for alcohol, the degree of nervousness, depression, sleep disorders; evaluation of criticality according to their condition, motivation, personality changes in the patient; assessment of the degree of preservation of memory, intelligence, voluntary mechanisms of the patient. Gathered information is of great importance in the formation of the correct treatment program.
- Detoxification – This represents detoxification from alcohol and its toxic residues, removal of unpleasant and dangerous symptoms of abstinence syndrome. After several days of drunkenness, there is the risk of epileptic seizure or alcoholic delirium. Therefore, it is an important detoxification moment, it is not only the infusion of vitamins, hepatoprotection, amino acids, and more complex preparations which protect the brain, normalizes heart, liver, kidney, peripheral nervous system. The most common diseases associated with alcohol are polyneuropathy, hypertension, hepatosis, hepatitis, stenocardia, pancreatitis, diabetes, encephalopathy. The process of detoxification lasts from one to two days for a simple case and from five to seven days with heavy drinking patients.
- The stabilization of the psyche – After the patient passes the withdrawal syndrome and starts to feel better, unfortunately, addiction does not pass. At this moment starts the most important phase of treatment – a phase which forms a negative attitude towards alcohol, crashes his appeal. There is a whole range of methods that allow the patient not to feel a lack, deprivation of alcohol, but also to feel comfortable while sober. In addition to discussions and tablets modern medicine has many effective ways. This is an aversive therapy that forms the aversion to alcohol, on a subconscious level, N.E.T. therapy that removes hormone imbalance that caused satisfaction by using alcohol. Information Therapy, audio-visual stimulation and hypnosis help to recover the personality of the patient, from a common value system as a habit. After the mental state of the patient stabilizes, the desire for alcohol reduces, and mood, sleep, memory normalize. The process of psycho-correction includes different types of psychotherapy – individual, group, family. Education, transactional analysis, symbol drama, behavior therapy – for each patient and the method that suits him/her best. At this stage, close family members are actively engaged.
· Blockade – This is an important component that ensures the safety of treatment results. Use of medicinal products shall be established a strong reaction of intolerance to alcohol. Use of the smallest amount of beer or wine is accompanied by thunderous effects on the body. The use of alcohol becomes impossible. Pharmacological prohibition of alcohol under the rule lasts a year. One of the most important stages in a total treatment of addicts phase is the preservation of the results.