Drug abuse is about having a law prohibited drugs such as marijuana, ecstasy, heroin or other drugs to which it is possible to reach only by illegal means, as well as the abuse of legal drugs that can get at the pharmacy with a prescription or without a prescription. Some people are starting to abuse drugs to overcome stress and emotional problems while others want to achieve a state of intoxication. Later, when they develop an addiction, people continue to abuse drugs to be able to function and to avoid unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.
Drugs are not the specificity of our century. For them, they knew and prehistoric humans, narcotics are mentioned in Sumerian tablets, the Indian sacred books of the Vedas, the Egyptian papyri, and in China were led real wars over opium. Also, the production of alcoholic beverages began very early. The ancient Egyptians made wine, the Church in Europe used it in the rite of Communion. In Renaissance era, alcohol is posted as an integral part of the European culture. For a long time, drugs were limited to the regions in which they are produced, for example, the hashish was used in the Middle East, khat at the Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, opium in Asia, cocaine in South America, but in the 20th century they got used worldwide. Some of the reasons that contributed this pandemic are: determined legal status of protected substances (Tobacco and alcohol), and somewhere soft drugs (United Kingdom and USA), pharmacological nature of these compounds (lead short-term effect sufficient faction, and then create the need to use increased amounts), as well as social factors such as migration, urbanization, difficulties in adapting to the demands of the new environment and the new circumstances. Today, alcohol and drugs are used wide and this is one of the most widespread and the most serious sociomedical problem of this century. Epidemic use of these substances has affected all countries, both developed and those developing. The World Health Organization reports that more and more people try substances which cause addiction and mostly in the younger age.
Each drug addict goes through different phases:
- The first phase – experimentation with drugs
- The second phase – the desire for a psychoactive substance
- The third phase – losing control
- Fourth phase – complete addiction
Factors that lead young people at risk from the use of alcohol and drugs:
- Environmental factors:
1. Economic / social poverty – children from socially disadvantaged families, in poor living conditions, whose parents are unemployed, are at a higher risk of delinquent behavior and drug and alcohol abuse 2. Poor neighborhoods and poor organization of society – the neighborhood with a high crime rate and temporary residents does not provide a sense of belonging and stable relationships that exist in well-organized local communities 3. Transition periods and relocation – transition from lower to higher grades or from primary to secondary school, and frequent movings
- Laws and social norms that favor use of alcohol and drugs
- Easy access to alcohol and drugs
- Individual risk factors:
1. Alcoholism in family history – children who were born or brought up in families where there was alcoholism are at higher risk of becoming alcoholics themselves or drug users 2. Poor and inconsistent family education – in families where parents do not have a clear view of what they expect from their children, do not follow their development, where discipline is implemented too harsh 3. Antisocial behavior and hyperactivity – children in early childhood exhibit aggressive behavior combined with hyperactivity